GERD: What to Eat and Avoid


Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic digestive condition that affects millions of people worldwide. It occurs when stomach acid frequently flows back into the esophagus, causing irritation and discomfort.

While medication and lifestyle changes can help manage GERD, one of the most significant factors in controlling symptoms is your diet. Knowing which foods to eat and which to avoid can make a substantial difference in managing GERD effectively.

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What is GERD?

GERD, or gastroesophageal reflux disease, is a digestive disorder characterized by the chronic regurgitation of stomach acid into the esophagus. This acid reflux can irritate the lining of the esophagus, leading to symptoms such as heartburn, chest pain, regurgitation, and difficulty swallowing. GERD is often caused by a weakened lower esophageal sphincter (LES), a ring of muscle that normally prevents stomach acid from flowing back into the esophagus.

Symptoms of GERD

Common symptoms of GERD include:

  • Heartburn: A burning sensation in the chest or throat.
  • Regurgitation: The sensation of stomach acid or food coming back into the mouth.
  • Difficulty Swallowing: Due to esophageal irritation.
  • Chest Pain: Often mistaken for a heart attack.
  • Chronic Cough: Caused by acid irritating the airways.
  • Sore Throat: Resulting from acid exposure.

Causes of GERD

Several factors can contribute to the development of GERD, including:

  • Hiatal Hernia: When part of the stomach pushes through the diaphragm muscle into the chest cavity, it can weaken the LES.
  • Obesity: Excess weight can put pressure on the abdomen and LES, increasing the risk of reflux.
  • Pregnancy: Hormonal changes and increased pressure on the abdomen during pregnancy can trigger GERD.
  • Smoking: Smoking can weaken the LES and contribute to GERD.
  • Certain Foods: Some foods can relax the LES or increase stomach acid production, aggravating GERD symptoms.

Foods to Eat to Prevent GERD

If you have GERD, incorporating the following foods into your diet may help manage symptoms:

  • Lean Proteins: Opt for lean cuts of poultry, fish, and tofu.
  • Fruits and Vegetables: Most are GERD-friendly, but avoid acidic varieties like citrus and tomatoes.
  • Whole Grains: Oatmeal, brown rice, and whole-grain bread are good choices.
  • Non-Citrus Herbs: Ginger, turmeric, and fennel can aid digestion.
  • Low-Fat Dairy: Choose low-fat or fat-free yogurt and milk.
  • Healthy Fats: Avocado, olive oil, and nuts are less likely to trigger GERD.
  • Non-Citrus Juices: Opt for apple, carrot, or aloe vera juice.

Foods to Avoid with GERD

To reduce the risk of GERD symptoms, consider limiting or avoiding these trigger foods:

  • Citrus Fruits: Oranges, lemons, and grapefruits are highly acidic.
  • Tomatoes and Tomato Products: Tomato sauce, ketchup, and salsa can be problematic.
  • Chocolate: Contains substances that relax the LES.
  • Spicy Foods: Can irritate the esophagus and worsen symptoms.
  • Peppermint and Spearmint: May relax the LES.
  • Fried and Fatty Foods: High-fat meals can delay stomach emptying.
  • Carbonated Beverages: Carbonation can expand the stomach, pushing acid into the esophagus.
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GERD can be a challenging condition to manage, but dietary choices play a significant role in symptom control. By eating foods that are less likely to trigger acid reflux and avoiding those that exacerbate symptoms, individuals with GERD can improve their quality of life.

However, it’s essential to consult with a healthcare professional or a registered dietitian for personalized guidance, as dietary triggers can vary from person to person. In addition to dietary changes, other lifestyle modifications, such as weight management and not lying down right after eating, can also contribute to better GERD management.

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Hairun Bijaksana

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